HOUSES AND FACADE INSULATION
Caring for the facade beauty is a half work of private house improvement. People usually lay off wall insulation until last, to the start of cold weather. Therefore, let us point out compelling reasons in favor of timely private house facade insulation :
- Due to constant rise in prices of energy supply, to pay non-heated housing, depending on the area, will cost pretty penny. Furthermore, only through outer walls up to 50 % of house heating goes away, you must admit that it is wasted money.
- Cold and damp, in general, have a bad impact on the physiological and psychological microclimate the house
- High-quality thermal insulation work cannot be done in a hurry, in the wet or cold season.
Thermal-insulating properties of a private house should be laid at the construction stage. Only complex approach allows maximum efficiency. In percentage, the greatest heat losses are in the vertical enclosing surfaces: walls, windows, entrance doors. Half of them fall on the walls.
TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS OF WARMING IN THE HOUSE
The vertical walls of houses from the outside and from the inside are heated. However, external warming of walls is the most effective. Since it does not reduce the profitable area of the room and does not contribute to the accumulation of excess moisture inside the premises, and therefore wet spots will not appear on the walls, or in the worst case, mold. This is due to the dew point movement on the outer plane of the wall and is easily explained by the figures below.
without insulation inner insulation outer insulation
Even ordinary facade plaster has insulating properties, but they can be improved - it is enough to reduce the specific density. This is done simply, not sand, but lighter additives are used as filler - sawdust, bloating clay, expanded granules of rocks, expanded polystyrene granules. The maximum effect is achieved when using polystyrene foam. This type of insulation is called “warm plaster”.
Advantages: low price, simple installation method and any facade configuration.
- the lowest effect among all types of insulation (per unit thickness);
- limited decorative features;
- "Wet work".
Nevertheless, the method is quite popular, especially for low-budget construction using materials with a good degree of thermal insulation - slag block, monolithic lightweight concrete. There are houses in the villages where the walls are insulated using the traditional “coating method”, using a solution of clay, lime and chopped straw.
This is one of the most popular modern ways. Commonly used type of low-rise construction insulation, and for insulation of a city apartment in a panel house.
- Insulated wall
- Adhesive for fixing the heat insulating material to the base
- Decorative facade stucco
- Corner protection profile
- Thermal insulation plate (slag wool, expanded polysterene)
- Glue to create a protective layer with a reinforcing glass mesh
- Pan head dowel
- Reinforcing alkali-resistant glass mesh
- Mineral wool firebreak
- Starting basement profile
- 11 .Quartz primer
Insulation is attached to the facade: polystyrene, extruded foam polystyrene, hard slag wool mats. Sheets are mounted in a staggered order, it is done with dowels and adhesive solution. Five umbrella-shaped plugs for 1 square are enough. The same solution is applied from above, the reinforcing polymer mesh is pushed into it, so that the seams between the sheets of insulation do not appear on the face decoration. After the adhesive solution hardens, a layer of facade plaster is put. It can be any - mineral or polymer, conventional or decorative, tinted in mass or white, for colouring.
- high thermal insulation properties, which are determined by the thickness of the insulation;
- the insignificant weight which is not demanding strengthening of the base;
- good ornamental possibilities;
- use on complex facades;
- affordable price.
The disadvantage is the seasonal fluctuation of wet work. It is advisable to do it in warm, dry weather.
This is how usually ventilated facades that use decorative panels as the top layer called. According to the range of finishing materials, this method has no match - stone, ceramics, glass, metal, polymers and wood. Moreover, each type can have quite a lot of options. Siding and wood trim can be called the most popular type for private houses. But the siding is different: vinyl, wood, fiber-cement, metal. The vinyl is used most often. Wood paneling is used for wooden houses insulation. And in this case there are different options - a block house, imitation log siding and planken.
The technology of insulation is called a suspended thanks to the use of the supporting structure of brackets (fixed to the facade) and batten for cladding installation. Lathing, as a rule, has a vertical direction, which provides the best conditions for insulation perflation. The material for the frame is a steel galvanized or alum profile, wooden beam. Insulant – slag wool, foam plastic is used for the sole plate. Fixing to the wall takes place with screw plugs. A ventilated gap (for weathering condensate) must be left between the insulation and the outer lining. Mineral wool from above is protected by a “wind barrier” - a special membrane that permits moisture vapor, but protects the insulation from wind erosion. Lathing, as a rule, has a vertical direction, which provides the best conditions for insulation.
- high decorative possibilities;
- lack of wet work, allowing for insulation at any time of the year;
- high speed of installation (it is not necessary to wait until the building mixtures reach "condition");
- complex installation (it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of each type of material - a different degree of change in linear dimensions under the influence of temperature and humidity);
- a large assortment of supporting profiles (for the wall “frame” and openings design) requires precise calculation at the design stage and the purchase of materials;
- The cost of even the most ordinary materials is quite high.
FLEXIBLE HEAT INSULATION
This technology is used for insulation during the lining bricks finishing. But if sinking masonry can be used only during the construction phase (and then upon condition of using an ordinary brick for the main walls), then flexible connections are more all-purpose. They can be used in the walls decoration made of monolithic concrete, concrete slabs or building blocks (acid brick, slag block). Moreover, it is possible to execute the work on insulation during the use of the building, the main thing is that the bearing capability of the foundation could withstand additional load.
The essence of the method. Polymer stakes are attached to the main wall (in masonry joints or special holes), they also fix a sheet or insulation mat. The other end of the stake is laid in the masonry joint of the lining brick. Special "umbrella" on the stake provides a ventilated gap.
Disadvantages: the cost of facing bricks, wet work and the need, in fact, to lay out another wall in half-brick.
Basis - OSB plate or water resistant plywood. Heater - polystyrene foam or polyurethane foam. The front layer is brick tile. Installation –dowels, hammered through the joints of the brick tile, or plastic rails attached to the wall.
Advantages: simple installation, good thermal insulation, high speed of work, low weight, beautiful texture of brick tiles.
MATERIALS FOR OUTER WALLS INSULATION
Foam cellular plastic
Foam cellular plastic is the most popular material for external insulation. Lightweight, inexpensive and relatively easy to install. It has excellent thermal insulation properties. However, despite all the advantages, foam plastic has several drawbacks - it is flammable and toxic when burning, there are also experts who claim that over the years (approximately 15-20 years), the foam begins to lose its insulating qualities.
EXTRUDED FOAM POLYSTERENE
Synthetic material used for insulation, similar with the foam texture. Extruded polystyrene foam is waterproof, characterized by low thermal conductivity and has dimensional stability. Durable and lightweight.
This material disadvantages are flammability, while it emits a large amount of hazardous substances and the price of this material is higher than of foam plastic, which, however, justifies its undoubted advantages.
Polyurethane foam, in fact, one of the plastic types. The material has a foamy structure and is applied with a special spraying device. During insulation covers the surface in a continuous layer, without joints. Polyurethane foam is an excellent heat and sound insulator, durable material. There are some difficulties with the application of this material, since the application process is quite specific, and the equipment rental is currently expensive.
SLAG WOOL AND MINERAL WOOL BOARDS
Mineral wool is fibrous insulation material, which is made from mineral raw materials. Available in the form of plates (mineral wool) or rolls. the Mineral wool house walls outdoor insulation is an excellent and environmentally friendly solution. This material has many undoubted advantages:
- reliably protects the building from heat loss;
- has high vapor permeability;
- incombustible material that meets modern standards of fire safety;
- differs in microbiological susceptibility and neutrality to various chemicals;
- high-quality wall insulation, including subsequent stuccowork , completely eliminates the penetration of cold and moisture on the so-called "cold bridges".
Modern, environmentally friendly and safe material, which has excellent thermal insulation characteristics and at the same time additionally performs the role of a great sound insulator. Also, it has its drawbacks: the complexity of installation and shrinkage of the material, which, over time, has its effect on the insulating properties.
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